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   Table of Contents - Current issue
April-June 2021
Volume 70 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 67-121

Online since Wednesday, June 30, 2021

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Quality control in E-learning for medical education Highly accessed article p. 67
Vishram Singh, Krishna Chaitanya Reddy, Rashi Singh
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Anatomical considerations regarding the posterior interosseous nerve for surgical approaches in the proximal forearm: A cadaveric study Highly accessed article p. 69
Jenny Jacob, Bina Isaac
Introduction: The posterior interosseous nerve (PIN) is at risk of injury when surgical procedures are undertaken in the proximal forearm. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship of the PIN to adjacent anatomical landmarks, which can be used to prevent iatrogenic injury to the nerve. Material and Methods: Forty upper extremities were used for this study. The landmarks used to measure the required parameters were intercondylar reference point, styloid process of ulna, proximal and distal borders of superficial layer of supinator muscle, and head of radius. The number of trunks of PIN and the innervation pattern of supinator muscle were studied. Results: The mean values and standard deviations of the measurements obtained were determined. There was no statistical difference of data between right and left sides. Discussion and Conclusion: The data obtained in the study will be of use to surgeons and orthopedicians during interventional procedures on the proximal part of radius and in decompression procedures of the PIN.
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A new method in anatomical education of medical faculty: Storytelling p. 75
Tuncay Colak, Ayla Tekin Orha, Ozan Tavas, Elif Aksu, Dilsat Guzelordu, Ismail Sivri, Belgin Bamac, Serap Colak
Introduction: The difficulty to learn anatomy makes it crucial to find the best way to effectively transfer the anatomic knowledge from educators to students. Stories can be used as an advantageous tool, which makes information more rememberable by stimulating cognitive behavior. Material and Methods: In order to determine the efficiency of the storytelling technique on the effects of grade point average in the anatomy session, stories were told to term II medical students (n = 132) at the end of the theoretical neurological lesson. A questionnaire with 12 questions was distributed to the students belonging to the pilot study. Grade point average, as well as gender and age (mean: 19.95 ± 0.995) of the students was the other parameters. Results: More than 90% of the students agreed that storytelling helps them to understand the subject and more than 70% of the students agreed that storytelling helps them to gather their attention. Furthermore, the statistical comparison with the previous 2 years demonstrated that the grade point average of the storytelling years was higher than the others. Discussion and Conclusion: Therefore, we believe that incorporating a storytelling learning style into the traditional anatomy curriculum, will be advantageous for education and will have a positive effect on the grade average. If we are able to revive the story in the minds of the students, we think that the lessons will be more permanent in their memory.
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Omega sign: An indicator of motor hand area on cerebral hemisphere p. 81
Shilpa Nandkishor Gosavi, Rajendra Somnath Garud
Introduction: With advances in the field of technology microneurosurgery is performed with the use of transcisternal, transfissural, and transsulcul approaches, where sulci present on brain are used as fundamental landmarks. Detailed knowledge of various cerebral sulci and gyri is also essential for neuroimaging techniques. Often neurosurgeons need to work in the central lobe to approach the cortical or subcortical lesions. The aim of the study was to identify and locate omega sign on the precentral gyrus as an indicator of hand area and to provide anatomical basis for the surgical landmark on the cortical surface. Material and Methods: Fifty-five cerebral hemispheres were studied in the Department of Anatomy. On the superolateral surface, the central sulcus, pre- and post-central gyri were identified. On the precentral gyrus, the presence of omega sign was observed. When present the height of the omega sign, width at the base, its distance from superior and inferior Rolandic point was noted. Data collected were statistically analyzed using SPSS version 25.0 software. Results: We observed the presence of omega sign in 26 hemispheres (47.27%). The average height of omega was 9.31 ± 2.94 mm, average width at base was 16.03 ± 3.34 mm. Distance from the superior Rolandic point was 27.53 ± 7.05 mm, while from inferior Rolandic point, it was 52.55 ± 7.8 mm. Discussion and Conclusions: Although technology offers modern intraoperative localization tools such as MRI and neuronavigation, anatomical knowledge is important for the surgical planning.
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An analysis of arches of the foot: Grading the severity of pesplanus and pescavus using a newly designed podoscope and parameters p. 85
K Vijayakumar, S Senthilkumar, Soham G Chandratre, Vaishaly Bharambe
Introduction: The aim of this study was to establish a new grading system of pesplanus (PP) and pescavus (PC) based on the severity by a newly proposed parameter plantar surface area (PSA) using a newly designed podoscope device. Material and Methods: A total number of 416 healthy participants; 208 men and 208 women aged 21–50 years were included in this study. Plantar surface images were obtained from the podoscope and measurements were made by using the newly proposed parameter and existing parameter. Statistical analysis was conducted using the SPSS Statistical software (version 16.0) and executed at 95% confidence interval. Mean and standard deviations were observed by using the descriptive analysis. The Chi-square test has been performed to find the association, dependency, and validity. Results: The analysis of the present study encompasses the grading system of “PP and PC” and also developed a classification system with three grades in PP and PC. This grading system will be a substantiate assessment tool for the diagnosis and also to record the prognosis during the treatment of PP and PC. Discussion and Conclusion: The present study has developed a newly designed podoscope and established a newly proposed parameters PSA index and analyzed the prevalence of normal, PP and PC. In this study, gender wise normative value for new parameters PSA index was proposed under the influence of height and foot length. According to our knowledge, this is the first study to grade the PP and PC in a proper scientific morphometric analysis using a newly designed podoscope with a PSA index.
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Comparison of maceration techniques for retrieval of bones p. 93
Anshu Soni, Ajay Kumar, Anu Sharma, Hitant Vohra
Introduction: Learning osteology is an essential part of anatomy curriculum. However, recently, there has been a scarcity in the availability of bones for teaching in India. The present study was conducted to compare four different maceration techniques and find the most suitable method to procure bones from an embalmed cadaver. The present study was conducted on dissected human cadavers made available from the department of anatomy. Material and Methods: For the first three methods, after dissection, the cadavers were buried in the burial section of the department for 2 years. The bones were washed after excavation. In the first method, detergent was used; in the second, quick lime was used; and in the third, hydrogen peroxide was used. In the fourth method, parts were not buried. The dissected parts were defleshed manually. The bones were freed from the joint. A paste was made using baking soda and 30% hydrogen peroxide. This was applied and bones were kept covered for 24 h. All four methods were compared. Results: Based on time required to macerate, ease of soft-tissue removal and complete procurement with minimal damage, the method using 30% H2O2 was the best. For smaller specimens, the new method of applying a paste of baking soda and H2O2 was very effective. The time consumed was very less. Discussion and Conclusion: Maceration using 30% H2O2 gave the best result. New method tried is time-saving and useful for small specimens. Soft tissue was removed easily with no/minimal damage to the bone.
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A cadaveric study on subclavius posticus muscle p. 97
BS Bhavya, Maheshwari Myageri, M Smitha, Rajeshwari C Eligar
Introduction: Subclavius posticus muscle (SPM) is a rare anomalous muscle that traverses from costal cartilage of first rib posterolaterally to superior border of scapula. The aim of the study was to study the prevalence of SPM in adult cadavers. Material and Methods: Fifty upper limbs from embalmed cadavers allotted for routine dissection practical for first MBBS students were used for the study. There were twenty male and five female cadavers, with ages ranging from 60 to 80 years, specimens of both sides were used. Results: The SPM was found in seven cases out of fifty cases, two on left, and five on the right side of pectoral region. Discussion and Conclusion: The presence of variant SPM could be a predisposing causative factor of thoracic outlet syndrome.
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Anatomical variations in scapula: A study with correlation to gender and sides p. 101
Ritu Singroha, Usha Verma, Suresh Kanta Rathee
Introduction: Anatomical variation is defined as the normal flexibility in the topography and morphology of body structures. The present study was planned to study anatomical variations in dry scapula of North Indian population and their comparison between males and females on both sides. Material and Methods: The study was performed at the Department of Anatomy, PGIMS, Rohtak, on fifty pairs of human scapulae, out of which thirty were males and twenty were females. Various anatomical variations were noted such as sulcus for circumflex scapular artery, costal facets, horizontal inferior border, scapular foramina, and facet on inferior surface of acromion process. Morphological types of tip of acromion process, inferior surface of acromion process, and superior border of scapula were studied. These parameters were compared in both sexes on both the sides. Results: Majority of the anatomical variations were common in females in comparison to males. Discussion and Conclusion: Knowledge of the anatomical variations of scapula is the key to a successful outcome in the clinical setting.
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Biotherapeutic sufficiency of virgin coconut oil on paraquat-mediated reproductive dysfunction p. 106
Joseph Alo Nwafor, Chika Uduma-Ukpai, John Okechukwu, Obinna Uchewa, Ofovwe Ekaikite, Somadina Ikpeze
Introduction: Paraquat (PQ) affects male reproductive health with the risk of infertility. Virgin coconut oil (VCO) has antioxidative and fertility properties. Thus, the histology of the testis and seminal vesicles, spermatic indices, testosterone, malondialdehyde (MDA), and superoxide dismutase level in Wistar rats exposed to PQ and treated with VCO was investigated. Material and Methods: Twenty-four rats (150–200 g) were divided into groupings (A-D) with six rats per group. Control (Group A) had a daily dose of 5 ml/kg of normal saline (NS) throughout the experimental period of 24 days. Group B received NS and oral dose of 12.75 mg/kg of PQ at the last 3 days of the experiment. Groups C and D were treated with 5 ml/kg and 10 ml/kg of VCO, respectively, for 21 days before PQ. The rats were then sacrificed. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis and the organs were harvested for histology. Results: There was no significant rise in MDA except in Group B. Groups C and D had significant decreases in sperm cells with unconventional pinhead, contrasting difference in active motile cells and testosterone when compared to Group B (P < 0.05). Normalcy in sperm count and a decrease in sperm cells with headless tails were only seen in Group C (P < 0.05). Histological evaluations showed minimal damage in VCO-treated groups. Discussion and Conclusion: VCO has a promising effect against PQ by modulating the activities of its free radicals in a dose-dependent manner.
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Sternalis and transversus thoracis muscles: An anatomical variation and its clinical implicationss p. 113
Monica Adriana Vaida, Nawwaf Sebastian Damen, Adelina Maria Jianu, Laura Grigorita
An unusual muscle was discovered during the dissection of the presternal and pectoral regions, which, according to Jelev classification, can be considered a sternalis muscle. The identified right sternalis muscle has a common origin with the sternal head of the right sternocleidomastoid muscle and then splits in two bellies, the right one, much longer, which inserts on the right 2nd–5th costal cartilages, and the left one which inserts on the 2nd–3th left sternocostal joints. The sternalis muscle was associated with a very poor developed right transversus thoracis muscle. The study is important for the anatomists and more important for the clinicians, as this muscle's presence may cause diagnostic errors in the pectoral region.
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A unilateral anomalous muscle with an uncommon nerve supply interconnecting the biceps femoris and the gastrocnemius p. 116
Oladiran Ibukunolu Olateju
This case study describes the morphology and embryology and hypothesizes the muscle action based on the morphology of an anomalous muscle that extends from the long head of the biceps femoris to the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscles. It has an uncommon nerve supply via the medial sural cutaneous nerve which is mainly sensory in humans. This variation is different from other similar variations involving the gastrocnemius and biceps femoris muscles. The case report will be of benefit to diagnosis, clinical training, and surgical procedures as well as contribute to knowledge on the type of nerve fiber carried by the medial sural cutaneous nerve or its components.
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Prof. (Dr.) S. P. Tewari (October 1926 - May 2020): A legendary anatomist and teacher p. 119
Vishram Singh
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Erratum: Examining the Antitumoral Effect of Cornelian Cherry (Cornus mas) in Ehrlich Ascites Tumor-induced Mice p. 121

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