Journal of the Anatomical Society of India

CASE REPORT
Year
: 2019  |  Volume : 68  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 312--315

A gastrosplenic trunk in association with a replaced common hepatic artery arising independently from the superior mesenteric artery: A case report using multidetector computed tomography angiography


Laura-Andreea Bolintineanu1, Nicoleta Iacob2, Petru Matusz1, Agneta Maria Pusztai1,  
1 Department of Anatomy and Embryology, “Victor Babes”University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Timisoara, România
2 Department of Multidetector Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Neuromed Diagnostic Imaging Centre, Timisoara, România

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Petru Matusz
Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Victor Babesh University of Medicine and Pharmacy Timisoara, Eftimie Murgu Square, No. 2, RO.300040 Timisoara, TM
România

Abstract

The authors report the case of a 51-year-old male that shown to have, independently of the vascular lesions of the lower limbs, the presence of a gastrosplenic trunk (GST) in association with a replaced common hepatic artery (CHA), arising from the superior mesenteric artery by multidetector computed tomography angiography. The GST with an endoluminal diameter of 5.6 mm at its origin and a length of 18.8 mm arose from the anterior wall of the AA at the level of middle 1/3rd of the L1 vertebral body. The replaced CHA with an endoluminal diameter at the origin of 4.8 mm has a lateral right ascendent path, initial in front of the superior mesenteric vein, in the middle portion penetrating the pancreatic parenchyma, in the terminal portion crossing the anterior aspect of hepatic portal vein, and finally fork in the gastroduodenal artery and hepatic artery proper. The knowledge of the variations of the GST and the replaced CHA is important for planning and performing procedures such as duodenopancreatectomy and liver transplantation.



How to cite this article:
Bolintineanu LA, Iacob N, Matusz P, Pusztai AM. A gastrosplenic trunk in association with a replaced common hepatic artery arising independently from the superior mesenteric artery: A case report using multidetector computed tomography angiography.J Anat Soc India 2019;68:312-315


How to cite this URL:
Bolintineanu LA, Iacob N, Matusz P, Pusztai AM. A gastrosplenic trunk in association with a replaced common hepatic artery arising independently from the superior mesenteric artery: A case report using multidetector computed tomography angiography. J Anat Soc India [serial online] 2019 [cited 2020 Jun 4 ];68:312-315
Available from: http://www.jasi.org.in/text.asp?2019/68/4/312/279741


Full Text



 Introduction



The trifurcation of the celiac trunk (CT) first described by Haller in 1756 and known in classical anatomy as “tripod of Haller” divides into the left gastric artery (LGA), common hepatic artery (CHA), and splenic artery (SA).[1] Reviewing the literature, Venieratos et al.[2] highlight the gastrosplenic trunk (GST) in classifications made by Lipsutz (1917), Adachi (1928), Morita (1935), and Michel (1955). Song et al.,[3] analyzing CT variations on 5002 patients, highlighted GST in 2.86% of cases, out of which, in 2.64% of cases, the presence of GST is associated with a hepatomesenteric trunk (HMT), and in 0.22% of cases, GST is associated with the separate origin of CHA from the abdominal aorta (AA). Analyzing the CHA variants, the authors highlight in 3% of cases the origin of CHA from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). The study documents, by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) angiography, an extremely rare case with the presence of a GST in association with a replaced CHA arising from the SMA.

 Case Report



We report the case of a 51-year-old male with a 22-year history of smoking and peripheral vascular disease of the lower limbs for 6 years. Using MDCT angiography (64-slice MDCT system; SOMATOM Sensation, Siemens Medical Solutions, Forchheim, Germany), the patient was shown to have, independently of the vascular lesions of the lower limbs, the presence of a GST in association with a replaced CHA arising from the SMA [Figure 1]. The GST with an endoluminal diameter of 5.6 mm at its origin and a length of 18.8 mm arose from the anterior wall of the AA at the level of middle 1/3rd of the L1 vertebral body, 8 mm above the origin of the SMA. It forks into LGA with an endoluminal diameter at the origin of 2.9 mm and SA with an endoluminal diameter at the origin of 5.4 mm; the trunk of SMA with an endoluminal diameter at the origin of 9.6 mm had a length of 37.4 mm to the point of origin of the replaced CHA. The CHA with an endoluminal diameter at the origin of 4.8 mm has a lateral right ascendant path, initial in front of the superior mesenteric vein (SMV), in the middle portion penetrating the pancreatic parenchyma, in the terminal portion crossing the anterior aspect of hepatic portal vein (HPV), and finally after 36.9 mm, fork in gastroduodenal artery (GDA) and hepatic artery proper (HAP) which are forking in the right and left branches.{Figure 1}

Consent

For the X-ray examination by using a 64-slice MDCT system, and use of iodinated contrast agents, a written informed consent was obtained from the patient. Also, a written informed consent has been requested from the patient for publication of this case report and accompanying images.

 Discussion



Embryology

The developmental changes in ventral segmental arteries (VSAs) result in CT and SMA anatomical variations.[1] From top to bottom, the four VSAs (from 10th to 13th) become the LGA, SA, CHA, and SMA, respectively. These four VSAs are united in the initial stages of embryo-fetal development by “longitudinal anastomosis.” According to the extent of the resorption/retention of these structures, many anatomical variants of CT and SMA develop.[1] In our case, the development of GST in association with the replaced CHA arising from SMA is embryologically similar to the development of GST in association with HMT (Morita Type IV). On the one hand, the longitudinal anastomosis persists between the 10th and the 11th VSA. The 11th root of the VSA regresses and its distal part connects through longitudinal anastomosis with the 10th VSA to form the GST. On the other hand, the 13th VSA will form SMA; the 12th root of the VSA regresses, and its distal part connects through longitudinal anastomosis with the 13th VSA to lead to the replaced CHA from SMA. The difference between HMT formation and replaced CHA arising from SMA is represented by more distal connection of 12th VSA to the 13th VSA (will form SMA) compared to the connection level in the case of HMT.

Anatomic variations and clinical implications

Lipsutz in 1917[2] described four types of the variational pattern of CT, the Type IV being represented by GST in association with CHA arising from the AA, with a prevalence of 3.62% of cases. Adachi[4] highlights the GST in association with ARHA from SMA in 1.98% of cases. The GST in association with HMT has been highlighted with a prevalence between 0.40%[4] and 2.64%.[3]

Reviewing the literature on 10,116 cases with over six studies [Table 1], we highlighted the modal type of CT with a prevalence of 82.05% of cases (with a variation between 55.00%[5] and 96.44%)[3] and the aberrant (replaced or accessory) RHA with a prevalence of 5.84% of cases (with a variation between 2.84%[9] and 18.00%).[5] In the same case, we analyzed the prevalence of CHA origin from SMA, AA, and LGA. Replaced CHA originated from SMA has a prevalence of 2.26% (with a variation between 0.32%[9] and 4.50%).[5] Replaced CHA originated from AA has a prevalence of 0.61% (with a variation between 0.20%[6] and 2.13%).[9] Replaced CHA originated from LGA has a prevalence of 0.09% (with a variation between 0.16%[3] and 0.50% of cases[5]).{Table 1}

Based on the pancreatic penetration and the relationship between replaced CHA and HPV or SMV, Ha et al.[10] classified the replaced CHA in three types: Type A with penetration the pancreatic parenchyma and crossing the posterior aspect of SMV; Type B without penetration of the pancreatic parenchyma and crossing the posterior aspect of HPV or SMV; and Type C without penetration of the pancreatic parenchyma and crossing the anterior aspect of HPV or SMV. In our case, the CHA is initially placed relative to the anterior aspect of SMV in the middle part of its path crossing pancreatic parenchyma and before bifurcating in GDA and HAP is placed relative to the anterior aspect of HPV (aspect not included in the classification of Ha et al.[10]).

 Conclusions



To our knowledge, the present case is the first association of a GST with a replaced CHA arising from SMA and also the first case report with this condition using MDCT angiography. In conclusion, the knowledge of the variations of the GST and the replaced CHA is important for planning and performing procedures such as duodenopancreatectomy and liver transplantation.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

References

1Iacob N, Pusztai AM, Miclăuş GD, Pop E, Matusz P. An anomalous origin of the gastrosplenic trunk and common hepatic artery arising independently from the abdominal aorta: A case report using MDCT angiography. Rom J Morphol Embryol 2018;59:353-7.
2Venieratos D, Panagouli E, Lolis E, Tsaraklis A, Skandalakis P. A morphometric study of the celiac trunk and review of the literature. Clin Anat 2013;26:741-50.
3Song SY, Chung JW, Yin YH, Jae HJ, Kim HC, Jeon UB, et al. Celiac axis and common hepatic artery variations in 5002 patients: Systematic analysis with spiral CT and DSA. Radiology 2010;255:278-88.
4Adachi B. The arterial system of the Japanese. Vol 2. Kyoto: Imperial Japanese University of Kyoto, Maruzen Publishing Co.; 1928.
5Michels NA. Newer anatomy of the liver and its variant blood supply and collateral circulation. Am J Surg 1966;112:337-47.
6Hiatt JR, Gabbay J, Busuttil RW. Surgical anatomy of the hepatic arteries in 1000 cases. Ann Surg 1994;220:50-2.
7López-Andújar R, Moya A, Montalvá E, Berenguer M, De Juan M, San Juan F, et al. Lessons learned from anatomic variants of the hepatic artery in 1,081 transplanted livers. Liver Transpl 2007;13:1401-4.
8Saba L, Mallarini G. Anatomic variations of arterial liver vascularization: An analysis by using MDCTA. Surg Radiol Anat 2011;33:559-68.
9Löschner C, Nagel SN, Kausche S, Teichgräber U. Hepatic arterial supply in 1297 CT-angiographies. Rofo 2015;187:276-82.
10Ha HI, Kim MJ, Kim J, Park SY, Lee K, Jeon JY. Replaced common hepatic artery from the superior mesenteric artery: Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) classification focused on pancreatic penetration and the course of travel. Surg Radiol Anat 2016;38:655-62.