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   Table of Contents - Current issue
January-March 2019
Volume 68 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-88

Online since Tuesday, July 16, 2019

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Effects of transplanted olfactory ensheathing cells on functional improvement and axonal regeneration in acute and delayed spinal cord injury in rats: A comparative study Highly accessed article p. 1
Somayeh Heydarizadi, Naser Abbasi, Khairollah Asadollahi, Sara Rezaee, Ayat Moradipour, Monireh Azizi
Introduction: Cell therapy is known as one of the most common methods used for treating a spinal cord injury (SCI); particularly, olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), which have attracted much more attention among scholars due to their properties such as promotion of axonal regeneration, remyelination, and angiogenesis. Thus, the present study compared the effects of transplanted OECs on functional improvement and axonal regeneration of contused rats during acute and delayed phases. Material and Methods: For this purpose, a total of 56 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into eight groups including sham, control, three vehicle groups (immediately, 3 and 7 days after injury), and three cell transplantation groups (immediately, 3 and 7 days following injury). The sham group had experienced only laminectomy and other groups had undergone the SCI. The olfactory mucosa of the 7-day-old rat pups was also used for cell culture. The cell type was then confirmed by immunocytochemistry. In the vehicle and cell transplantation groups, the cell culture medium was injected by itself or accompanied by cells, respectively. Subsequently, the motor function was evaluated. Finally, luxol fast blue (LFB) staining was used for histological assessment. Results: Motor test results showed an increase in the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan locomotor scale scores immediately after injury in the transplantation group compared to those in other two cell-treated groups; but it was not significant. Discussion and Conclusion: Based on the LFB staining results, the regeneration rate in the transplantation group immediately after injury was considerably higher than that in two other treated groups. Therefore, considering these findings, it seemed that cell transplantation immediately after injury was better than that 3 and 7 days following injury.
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Expression of fibroblast growth factor-10 during histogenesis of human lung in prenatal period p. 7
Kahkashan Jeelani, Neelam Vasudeva, Sabita Mishra
Introduction: The developing human lung has five stages. Many important signaling molecules have been identified at each stage of the developing lung. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling, mainly FGF10, is a key molecule in airway branching. Failure of the expression of FGF10 may lead to hypoplastic lung and blunted tracheal end. In this view, the expression of FGF10 was studied in each stage of human lung development. Material and Methods: In the present study, ten aborted fetuses of gestational age 14–26 weeks were procured from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, LNH, New Delhi, after ethical clearance. After fixation in 10% formalin, serial sections of each lung tissue were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and immunostaining was done to see the expression of FGF10. Results: The amount of mesenchymal tissue decreased and condensed with advancing gestational age. At 14-week gestation, the first expression of FGF10 was seen in mesenchyme by immunostaining. Discussion and Conclusion: As the gestational age advances, the amount of mesenchymal tissue decreases and gradual diminution of the height of epithelium was seen. By the 26th week of intrauterine life, fetal lung attains morphological maturity so as to support the extrauterine life of a growing fetus.
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Compared growth patterns of the foot and its correlation with stature in Western Uttar Pradesh and NCR Delhi children aged between 6 and 10 years p. 12
Vishram Singh, V Chakradhar, Yogesh Yadav, Rashi Singh
Introduction: The present study is based on the measurement of foot length and width which is correlated with the stature of 250 Western Uttar Pradesh and NCR Delhi children between 6 and 10 years of age. The measurements of the feet were taken on a flatbed scanner, and the image was captured and analyzed on a computer using Photoshop software. Material and Methods: The present study was conducted on 250 Western UP and NCR Delhi children who belong to different parts of Western UP and NCR Delhi. The stature of the person was measured from vertex to the floor while the individual was standing in an anatomical position. Obtained data were analyzed, and an attempt was made to find the correlation and to derive the linear regression formulae between stature and foot measurement. A good correlation was observed between stature and foot measurements. Results: Foot length of both right and left feet had a stronger correlation to stature with a value of 0.736, and the significance level was 0.01. Foot width of the right foot had a good correlation to stature with a value of 0.591, and the significance level was 0.01. Foot width of the left feet also had a good correlation to stature with a value of 0.588, and the significance level was 0.01. Discussion and Conclusion: Stature is an important parameter in determining the partial identity of unidentified bodies and dismembered remains. Determination and monitoring of growth rate may be possible with the correlation of foot length and stature. Results obtained would be useful for anthropologists and forensic medicine experts.
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Examining the antitumoral effect of cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) in ehrlich ascites tumor-induced mice p. 16
Seher Yilmaz, Şerife Alpa, Mehtap Nisari, Gökçe Şeker Karatoprak, Züleyha Doğanyiğit, Harun Ülger, Tolga Ertekin
Introduction: Different doses of C. Mas concentrated syrup on ascitic tumors was investigated in the Ehrlich Ascites Tumor model (EAT). Material and Methods: A total of 46 Balb/C mice were used in our study, 6 of which were stock animals and the other were in ascitic tumor groups. EAT cells (1x106 EAT cells) were injected intraperitoneally into all of the mice. Mice in the treatment groups with ascitic tumors received 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg Cornus Mas extract intraperitoneally for 9 days. Results: Counts after the 3 and 24-hour incubations in the EAT cell line that the average number of the dead cells was less in the group to which 100μg/ml C. Mas was administered when compared with the control group, and that this difference was significant at a statistical level (P<0.05). The purpose was also to determine the in vitro cytotoxic effects of Cornus Mas on EAT cells, to define the alive and dead cell rates, and to compare the 3-hour and 24-hour incubation in groups to which Cornus Mas (syrup) extract were given at different concentrations (50, 100, 250μg/ml). Discussion and Conclusion: EAT model is one of the animal tumors induced empirically, it has been the subject matter of many other studies. In the group in which EAT was applied together with high-dose C. mas fruit syrup, it was observed that the EAT cells were not as intense as they were in the tumor control group. Our study showed the anti-tumor effect of C. Mas in assisted tumor development with EAT cells.
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Computed tomography measurements of normal adrenal glands in Indian population p. 23
Neeti Aggarwal, Rohit Bhoil, Sanjiv Sharma, Surya Pratap Singh
Introduction: Evaluating the adrenal glands for size is fundamental in their imaging and to ascertain its normality or abnormality. Awareness of the range of normal size and shape is useful for adequate interpretation of computed tomography (CT) scans in patients with suspected adrenal pathology. Material and Methods: CT body scans of 1250 patients without evidence of adrenal disease were reviewed to determine the shape and size of normal adrenal glands. Patients with conditions that are known to affect the adrenal glands or any known malignancy were excluded from the study. Furthermore, patients with any evidence of focal adrenal enlargement or malignancy on imaging were not included in the study. All measurements were made on 64-slice contrast-enhanced CT axial sections and only those images were selected in which the adrenals were adequately visualized. Three measurements were made: maximum width of the body of the gland and maximum width of both the limbs (medial and lateral); all measurements were taken perpendicular to the long axis of the body/limb. Results: Based on our study, we came to the conclusion that the average width of the body of the right and left adrenal glands is 6.9 ± 0.31 mm and 5.4 ± 0.24 mm, respectively (though maximum width of the body may reach up to 11 mm) and that normal adrenal limbs should not measure >5 mm. Discussion and Conclusion: The most common shape of the adrenal glands was found to be Y shape, followed by the V and triangular shapes. The values provided in the present study may be used as a reference standard for the CT evaluation of the adrenal glands in the Indian population in particular.
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Acromion morphology and morphometry in the light of impingement syndrome and rotator cuff pathology p. 27
Mythraeyee Prasad, Sipra Rout, Priyanka Clementina Stephen
Introduction: Acromion process of the scapula and the subacromial space plays an important role in shoulder impingement syndrome and rotator cuff pathology. The aim is to study the morphological and morphometric parameters of the acromion process of human dry scapula in the South Indian population for its relevance in shoulder impingement syndrome and rotator cuff pathology. Material and Methods: Seventy adult unpaired dry scapulae (35 right and 35 left) of unknown age, gender, and without deformity were studied. The various shapes of acromion process were identified. Parameters such as acromioglenoid (AG) distance, coracoglenoid (CG) distance, coracoacromial (CA) distance, and height of the coracoacromial arch (HtCAA) were measured using a digital vernier caliper. The data were statistically analyzed. Results: The three types of acromion process observed were Type I flat in 57.14%, Type II curved in 40%, and Type III hooked in 2.86%. The mean ± standard deviation of AG distance was 24.9 ± 3.7 mm, CG distance was 22.7 ± 4.2 mm, AC distance was 30.9 ± 5.4 mm, and HtCAA was 19.2 ± 2.7 mm. A significant difference was observed with respect to AG (P = 0.04) and CG (P = 0.0007) between both sides of the scapula. Discussion and Conclusion: Knowledge about the common variant and morphometric dimensions of acromion process can aid to better understanding and planning for the treatment of rotator cuff pathology due to impingement syndrome.
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The effects of passive smoking on the human placenta: A gross and microscopic study p. 34
Srividya Sreenivasan, Satyam Khare
Introduction: Passive smoking is an established health hazard. Placenta is the main conduit of both nutrients and toxins to the fetus. This study aims to study the effect of passive smoking on the gross and microscopic changes in the placenta among passive smokers. Material and Methods: Gross and microscopic examination was done of the 150 term placentae donated to the department of anatomy; 63 were from gravidas with no history of exposure to tobacco smoke and labeled as controls, whereas 87 placentae were collected from passive smokers. Results: We observed a significant increase in the calcification of fetal surface of the placentae in our cohort (approximately 16% as compared to approximately 13% in the control group). Syncytial knots were found in 43% of the terminal villi in our cohort. Fibrinoid degeneration was observed in approximately 7% of the terminal villi of passive smokers. Hyperplasia of cytotrophoblast was observed in approximately 30% of the terminal villi in our cohort. 14% of the terminal villi of passive smokers had thickening of subtrophoblastic basement membrane. 9.47% of the terminal villi in the passive smoking group were avascular. These findings were statistically significant. Discussion and Conclusion: Passive smoking causes changes in the placenta at the gross and microscopic level. The gross and histologic changes seen in the placenta in this study are known to be associated with adverse fetal outcome. The changes in the placenta can serve as a means of understanding the mechanism of the fetal morbidity due to active or passive smoking.
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Retrospective analysis of adult thoracic surface anatomy in Indian population using computed tomography scans p. 39
Shallu Garg, Ajay Gulati, Anjali Aggarwal, Tulika Gupta, S Ali Mirjalili, Daisy Sahni
Introduction: Recent studies on human surface anatomy observed inconsistencies in standard surface markings from that given in contemporary anatomy texts, particularly in thoracic surface landmarks. The present study was conducted to reevaluate the thoracic surface anatomy of adults of Indian origin which has not been done so far and compare the observations with the descriptions obtained from other population groups. Material and Methods: The thoracic surface anatomy was analyzed in 100 thoracoabdominal computed tomography scans of the Indian population. Results: It was observed that the positions of the xiphisternal joint, sternal angle, central veins, apex of lungs, cardiac apex, and dome of the diaphragm were within the normal limits with slight deviations from that described in standard anatomy texts. However, certain landmarks showed high degree of difference among the races as well as from the descriptions of the textbooks such aortic arch, bifurcations of the trachea and pulmonary trunk, inferior border of right and left lung adjacent to the vertebral column, and vertebral level of inferior vena cava piercing the diaphragm. Discussion and Conclusion: The surface anatomical landmarks of the thorax are not static, and there is a need to accommodate for a range of values than the constant markings. The relationship of the thoracic structures with the overlying surface landmarks were more variable in relation to vertebral levels than the costal references.
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The prevalence and distribution of the dental anomalies in the Turkish population p. 46
Ozge Gurbuz, Aybuke Ersen, Benin Dikmen, Burak Gumustas, Mustafa Gundogar
Introduction: The incidence of developmental dental anomalies can provide valuable information. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence and distribution of dental anomalies in the Turkish population. Material and Methods: Totally 2203 patients who came to university hospital were examined clinically and radiographically for 10 dental anomalies: rotation, diastema, hypodontia, hyperdontia, microdontia, macrodontia, dilaceration, talon cusp, gemination and ectopia. Descriptive characteristics of these dental anomalies, including gender and regions of the jaw, were recorded. The data were analyzed with Chi-square test and Yates continuity correction. Results: In 1517 patients (68.9%), tooth anomaly was detected. Rotation was found in 58.4% of patients, significantly lower in the molar region than in the anterior and premolar regions (P < 0.01). Diastema was found in 22.7% of the samples, at higher rates in the anterior region than in the premolar and molar regions (P < 0.01). Dilaceration was observed 3.8% of the patients, at significantly higher rates in the molar region (P < 0.01). Ectopia was found in 2.9% of individuals, less common in the molar region than in the anterior and premolar regions (P < 0.01). Hypodontia was seen in 3.4% of patients, significantly lower in the anterior teeth than in the premolar and molar teeth (P < 0.01). Patients having talon cusp were 2.7%, microdontia was 1%, and only 0.5% showed the presence of hyperdontia. The distribution of hyperdontia and microdontia did not significantly differ between regions (P > 0.05). Gemination was seen in only one anterior tooth and macrodontia in only one premolar tooth. Discussion and Conclusion: Rotation is the most common dental anomaly in Turkish population, followed by diastema. Knowledge of the prevalence of anomalies may help clinicians to the detection of these anomalies at early stages.
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Can the anterolateral ligament be clearly identified in an embalmed cadaver? p. 52
Mehmet Yucens, Ahmet Nadir Aydemir, Sule Onur, Ali Cagdas Yorukoglu, Ahmet Fahir Demirkan
Introduction: In this study, it was aimed to determine the anterolateral ligament (ALL), especially in formalin-fixed cadaver knees using several dissection techniques. The ALL was described by Segond in 1879 as a “pearly, resistant, fibrous band” in the anterolateral aspect of the human knee. Hughston et al. described this anatomical structure as the mid-third lateral capsular ligament. Claes first described this structure as ALL. Material and Methods: The ALL was initially evaluated in six formalin-fixed cadaver knees and one fresh knee. Three different techniques were used in the formalin-fixed cadaver knees. Results: In one of the six formalin-fixed cadavers and in the fresh cadaver, the ALL was able to be explored. In the formalin-fixed cadaver knee, ALL was measured 5.5 mm distal, 3.4 mm mid, and 4.3 mm proximal. In the fresh cadaver knee, the ALL was measured 7.5 mm distal, 3.9 mm mid, and 5.4 mm proximal. Discussion and Conclusion: As a result of this study in which it was aimed to determine ALL, especially in formalin-fixed cadaver knees, it was only possible to clearly determine the ALL in one of the six formalin-fixed cadaver knees and in the fresh cadaver. In conclusion it is difficult to determine ALL in embalmed cadavers.
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Anatomical study of the middle turbinate and its applied importance p. 56
Payal Arvind Kasat, Gayatri Girish Muthiyan
Introduction: Endoscopy is widely recognized as a safe, convenient, and cost-efficient tool for examining and treating nasal ailments. The middle turbinate is an important landmark of the lateral nasal wall during endoscopy. Knowledge regarding the anatomy of the middle turbinate and its variations is beneficial to the endoscopic surgeons. Material and Methods: The shape and size of the middle turbinate were studied in hundred hemisected adult Indian cadaveric heads. Results: The middle turbinate is classified into three types according to the shape of its anterior border: Type 1 (38%), Type 2 (42%), and Type 3 (20%). The mean distance between the anterior attachment of the middle turbinate and the anterior attachment of the superior turbinate (MS) is 19.22 mm. The mean heights of the middle turbinate at its intersection with the anterior attachment (M1), the middle portion (M2), and at the posterior end (M3) of the superior turbinate are 12.83 mm, 9.14 mm, and 5.61 mm, respectively. Discussion and Conclusion: The study has described the anatomy of the middle turbinate with its clinical implications, especially in Type 1 and Type 3 middle turbinates, and precautionary measures should be taken while performing partial turbinectomy to avoid destabilizing the middle turbinate and to maintain patency of the middle meatus postoperatively. The documentation of these various types and their frequencies would be useful for the otorhinologists while performing endoscopy.
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Sodium arsenite exposure during early postnatal period induces morphological and biochemical changes in rat kidney p. 62
Sipra Rout, Pushpa Dhar
Introduction: The incidence of arsenic (As)-induced toxicity is increasing steadily all over the globe. Consumption of As-contaminated water is the chief source of exposure to As. Kidneys are important organs involved in the excretion of the final metabolized products of inorganic As (iAs) and organic As, thus becoming highly vulnerable to As-induced adverse effects. The functional and morphological maturation of kidneys during the gestational period continues to a variable extent into the early postnatal period and accordingly, the vulnerability to As exposure is increased manifold during postnatal period. Material and Methods: The present study aimed to assess the function and morphology of the developing kidney of rats exposed to sodium arsenite (Na As O2) (1.5 mg/kg body weight [bwt] intraperitoneally) from postnatal day 1–28. On day 29, the perfusion fixed kidney tissue was processed for paraffin embedding, whereas fresh kidney tissue was processed for biochemical estimation of reduced glutathione (GSH). Blood samples were collected intracardially for the assessment of serum urea and creatinine levels. Results: Functional deficits were reflected by increased levels of serum urea and creatinine levels in iAs-exposed animals. The GSH levels in the renal tissue of experimental animals showed a significant decrease (81.20 ± 26.79 μg/g) as against GSH levels in controls (122.45 ± 30.97 μg/g). Microscopic observations revealed obliterated Bowman's capsular space with increased cellularity in the experimental group. In addition, decrease in the number as well as size of glomeruli was noted in iAs alone-treated animals. Discussion and Conclusion: The adverse effects of As have been widely studied in various organ systems in adults. Our data showed a significant alteration in kidney parameters (structural and functional) of rats exposed to Na As O2 during early postnatal period, suggesting thereby increased vulnerability of the developing kidney to As exposure. Postnatal exposure of neonatal rats to sodium arsenite induces adverse effects on developing kidney.
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Facial asymmetry in slavic populations: Sex dimorphism in healthy young ukrainians p. 68
Olga Filiptsova, Yevgeniya Litovchenko, Olga Naboka, Ekaterina Luchko, Yevgeniya Dyomina, Larisa Galiy, Liana Budanova, Nelya Filyanina
Introduction: Facial and body asymmetry to some extent is present in all individuals. Because fluctuating asymmetry is of a stochastic nature, it cannot be studied at the level of individuals, but only its groups can be considering during studying the populations. Material and Methods: We conducted a survey of 200 students of 8–11 grades, from 13 to 17 years old, residents of Ukraine. Asymmetry measurements were made in the program GIMP-2.8. Results: Population distribution of eight points of the face asymmetry among the population of Ukraine was studied. Sex dimorphism was found under all average indicators of absolute and relative asymmetry. Higher indicators of asymmetry were common to males and also typical for the lower part of the face. Discussion and Conclusion: Obtained data complement the existing study on facial asymmetry in human. Some of our results are consistent with the existing data from previous studies of the world population, while others point to the differences of Slavic population in a number of features related to the facial asymmetry.
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Anatomical study of size variability of temporal and occipital horns of lateral ventricle of human brains: A magnetic resonance imaging study p. 74
Archana G Kalyankar, SN Dope, SB Sukre, Pravin H Shingare
Introduction: The lateral ventricles lie in each cerebral hemisphere with its three horns and body. The study of normal and variant anatomy of the ventricles of brain is very useful for clinicians and neurosurgeons in their routine practice. This study is directed to look for changes in the size of occipital and temporal horns of the lateral ventricle as per age and sex of the brain by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. Material and Methods: MRI scans of 55 patients (25 females and 30 males) with age ranging from 1 to 90 years were studied and the diameters of occipital and temporal horns were measured. Data were analyzed with respect to age and sex of individuals. Results: It was observed that the mean diameter of both horns decreases from 1 to 10 years of age group and increases from then to advancing age. No significant gender difference in the dimensions of both the horns of lateral ventricle was observed. Discussion and Conclusion: The present study showed that the age factor is responsible for change in the size of occipital and temporal horns of the lateral ventricle. The present study will be helpful to radiologists and neurosurgeons to differentiate the enlarged size of occipital and temporal horns by aging from that of other pathological conditions.
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Morphological and morphometric study of scaphoid bone in South Indian population p. 79
Senthil Kumar Babu
Introduction: Scaphoid fractures are the most common of the carpal bone injuries. Scaphoid fractures heal slowly due to the limited blood circulation of the bone. To avoid malunion, the scaphoid fracture has to be recognized in time and treated either by immobilization or by surgical fixation. The present study was carried out to observe the morphological variations of scaphoid and measure its dimensions and also to observe the position and number of nutrient foramen in the scaphoid bone. Material and Methods: A total of 100 dried adult human scaphoid bones were studied from the Department of Anatomy, VMKV Medical College and Hospital, to identify the possible morphological variations. The morphometry of scaphoid was measured using vernier caliper. The number of foramina was observed using a magnifying lens. The shape of tubercle, dorsal sulcus, and foramina on the dorsal sulcus were also observed and noted. The morphometric parameters were compared by Student's t-test on both the sides. Results: Of the 100 scaphoid bones studied, the tubercles were present in all the bones. Most of the scaphoid tubercles were conical and some were pyramidal in shape. All the scaphoid had main dorsal sulcus (54 scaphoids) and 46 scaphoids had two dorsal sulci. All the scaphoids had more than three foramina on the dorsal sulcus. Discussion and Conclusions: The morphological and morphometric data obtained from the scaphoid bone were compared with the previous studies, and the data may help the orthopedicians and radiologists for surgical reduction with internal fixation and to follow-up the reunion of fractured scaphoid bones.
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Stature estimation using foot parameters of Andhra Pradesh tribal children p. 84
Shanmukha Varalakshmi Vangara, Dhananjay Kumar, Patnaik V V. Gopichand, Nidhi Puri
Introduction: Stature estimation has an important role in forensic medicine, anthropology, and shoe wear industry. Personal identification using individual body parts forms the basis for this study. Koya and Konda Reddy tribal children are considered for this study because of their endogamous origin. The primitive nature of their origin is well preserved due to the lack of exposure to the developing world. They can be true representatives of people of that region. Height estimation using foot parameters is an essential parameter for personal identification. Material and Methods: A study on foot parameters was conducted on 360 Koya and Konda Reddy tribal children of Andhra Pradesh. Standing height was measured from vertex to the heel with the head held in Frankfurt's plane. Foot length (FL) and breadth were measured using an osteometric board. Foot index was calculated. Results: Mean height was noted as 129 cm in male and 124 cm in female children. Paired differences of FL and foot breadth between the right and left sides were not significant. Average values of foot parameters were considered for further analysis. Gender differences in foot parameters were significant. Correlation was noted high between foot parameters and stature. Therefore, regression equations were derived using FL and foot breadth for both genders separately. Discussion and Conclusion: Out of FL, foot breadth, and foot index, high correlation was noted between stature and FL. Hence, it is one of the best parameters in personal identification when only a part of the body such as foot is found.
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