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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 69  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 25-30

Morphometric study of nasal parameters in adult jaunsari tribe population of Dehradun district of Uttarakhand


Department of Anatomy, AIIMS, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India

Date of Submission31-May-2019
Date of Acceptance09-Sep-2019
Date of Web Publication11-Apr-2020

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Mohd Salahuddin Ansari
Department of Anatomy, AIIMS, Veerbhadra Marg, Rishikesh - 249 203, Uttarakhand
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/JASI.JASI_62_19

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  Abstract 


Introduction: Physical anthropometry has been helpful in clinical diagnosis, forensic medicine, orthodontics, plastic, and reconstructive surgery. The Jaunsari tribe is a unique tribal community of Uttarakhand. There is lack of anthropometric study on them. Hence, it was planned to study facial anthropometric parameters specially that of the nose, in adult Jaunsari tribe of district Dehradun, Uttarakhand. With objectives (1) To study the nasal anthropometric parameters of adult males and females. (2) To analyze the sex differences, if any. (3) and its statistical significance. Material and Methods: The study was carried on 100 adult males and 100 adult females of >18 years of age, belonging to Jaunsari tribe, after due approval from the Institutional Ethical Committee and informed consent. The methodology adopted for the anthropometric measurements was of Singh and Bhasin, and concerned measurements were taken and appropriate statistical tests were applied. Results: Nasal index, parameters related to it and total facial height are statistically significantly different among males and females. Sagittal Naso-facial Index and Elevation of Nose Index are 44.93 ± 3.79, 44.22 ± 3.18 and 69.23 ± 17.13, 65.70 ± 8.73 in females and males, respectively, which mean relatively elevated and shorter nose. Discussion and Conclusion: The most common nose type in females is leptorhinae (60%), whereas in males both leptorhinae and mesorrhine type of nose are equally (47%) prevalent. Predominant nasal breadth in male (69%) and in female (68%) is above medium type, whereas predominant nasal height in male (42%) and in female (50%) is above medium type and below medium type, respectively.

Keywords: Adult, anthropometry, face, female, male, nose


How to cite this article:
Singla M, Ravi KS, Ansari MS. Morphometric study of nasal parameters in adult jaunsari tribe population of Dehradun district of Uttarakhand. J Anat Soc India 2020;69:25-30

How to cite this URL:
Singla M, Ravi KS, Ansari MS. Morphometric study of nasal parameters in adult jaunsari tribe population of Dehradun district of Uttarakhand. J Anat Soc India [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Aug 12];69:25-30. Available from: http://www.jasi.org.in/text.asp?2020/69/1/25/282303




  Introduction Top


The only constant thing in human life is change. The change is taking place within the individual as well as outside the individual. These changes are inducing changes in individual's physical morphology. The physical dimensions of the human body are greatly influenced by factors such as age, sex, race, geographical location, and ecology.[1],[2] Physical anthropometry has provided techniques for evaluation and measurement of dimensions of the human body.[3],[4] Cephalometry is one of the important branches of physical anthropometry which deals with measurement of dimensions of the head and face.[5],[6],[7] It has been helpful in clinical diagnosis, forensic medicine, orthodontics, and plastic and reconstructive surgery.[5],[8],[9] The nasal dimensions are one of the important cephalometric dimensions which are used for description of racial and sexual differences.[4],[10],[11],[12]

Three anatomical facial prominences play an important role in the characterization of the profile of an individual because of this, these three, lips, nose, and chin have been the great source of attention.[13] Beauty and attractiveness of the face is dependent on reciprocal proportion and esthetic harmony between these parameters which constitute the aesthetic facial triads.[14] As all the anatomical factors mentioned are important, but nose occupies the central position for esthetic characterization.[15] Anatomically, nose consists of external and internal part, of which external part is the most studied one.[16] The nose is made up of bones and cartilages which maintain its pyramidal shape. Cosmetically, external nose is of great importance because of its role in enhancing individual's personality and beauty.[17]

Physical anthropology mainly deals with external measurements and descriptions of the human body.[18] Nasal index ratio which is the ratio of nasal width to nasal height multiplied by 100, has aided in the classification of nasal index into three different nose types: 69.9 and below leptorrhine or long-nosed, 70–84.9 mesorrhine or medium-nosed and 85 and above platyrrhine or broad-nosed.[19]

The Jaunsari tribe is the largest tribe of Uttarakhand. They have got the body features resembling that of both the Mongols as well as Indo-Aryan groups who have settled in the Himalayan provinces.[20] Because of being relatively isolated from the population of rest of the country for a longer period, this tribal community may have retained their unique physical features, culture, and traditions.

This study will provide the facial anthropometric parameter of adult male and female population of Jaunsari tribe of Dehradun. These facial anthropometric parameters can be used as the standard for future reference for the Jaunsari population. Hence, the study was planned to study facial anthropometric parameters, especially that of nose, in adult Jaunsari tribe of district Dehradun, Uttarakhand. With objectives (1) To study the nasal anthropometric parameters of adult male and female population of Jaunsari tribe of Dehradun district in Uttarakhand. (2) To analyse the sex difference in the nasal anthropometric parameters of Jaunsari tribe if any. (3) and its statistical significance.


  Material and Methods Top


This is a cross-sectional type of study, carried over 200 adult population of Jaunsari tribe consisting of 100 male and 100 female individuals of >18 years of age, after due ethical clearance and their informed consent.

Two tehsils-Chakrata and Kalsi were selected, out of six tehsils of Dehradun district for this study, because Jaunsari tribes are mainly inhabiting these two tehsils of district Dehradun. Equal numbers of randomly selected male and female individuals were taken from randomly selected villages of Chakrata (Lakhwar and Hartar) and Kalsi (Jari and Koti). The individual selection was based on the voter list available at the tehsil office of Chakrata and Kalsi.

The methodology for anthropometric measurements was adopted from Singh and Bhasin.[21] Individuals were asked to sit on a low stool of about 40 cm height for taking head and face measurements. The landmarks were marked on the body by skin marking pencil [Figure 1] and [Figure 2]. The head of subject was rested without any strain, in the eye-ear plane or (Frankfurt-Horizontal Plane), i.e., tragion and the infraorbital must lie in the same horizontal plane. The subject was advised not to change his position while measurements were taken. The observer was standing on the right side of the subject while taking the various measurements of the face. Keeping left hand on the head of subject and holding the tips of the upper arm of the caliper with thumb and index finger on the desired landmark, lower arm of the caliper was slided upward to the extent that the tip touches the landmark. The tip of the lower arm must only touch the different landmarks [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7]. The facial muscles were relaxed, and the jaw was kept closed during the measurement. Following somatometric landmarks and measurement were taken by using digital sliding caliper with flat arms.
Figure 1: Somato-metric landmarks

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Figure 2: Somato-metric landmarks

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Figure 3: Measurement of nasal breadth

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Figure 4: Measurement of nasal height

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Figure 5: Masurement of nasal length

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Figure 6: Measurement of morphological upper facial length

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Figure 7: Measurement of nasal depth

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Somatometric landmarks

  1. Nasion (n) – It is the point of the nasal root intersected by mid-sagittal plane. The nasal root is not depression of the nose but at the nasofrontal suture which can be felt by slightly probing the root of the nose [Figure 1]
  2. Gnathion (gn) – It is the lowest point on the lower margin of the lower jaw intersected by the mid-sagittal plane. This point can be palpated on the lower jaw from behind and slightly anterior to chin [Figure 2]
  3. Alare (al) – It is the most laterally placed point on the nasal wing [Figure 1]
  4. Pronasale (prn) – It is the most anterior place point on the tip of the nose when the head is held in mid-sagittal plane [Figure 1]
  5. Subnasale (sn) – It is the point where the lower margin of the nasal septum meets the integument of the upper lip. This point should be sought where the tangent drawn to the nasal septum meets the upper lip [Figure 2].


Somatometric measurements

  1. Nasal breadth (al-al): It measures the straight distance between the two alarae (al) i.e., the most laterally placed points on the nasal wings [Figure 3]
  2. Nasal height (n-sn): It measures the straight distance between nasion and subnasale (sn) [Figure 4]
  3. Nasal depth: It measures the projective distance between the tip of the nose and hind most point on the nasal septum. This measurement is taken by fixing the movable arm of the sliding caliper on the reverse side [Figure 5]
  4. Nasal length (n-prn): It measure the straight distance between nasion (n) and pronasale (prn) [Figure 6]
  5. Morphological facial height or total facial height (n-gn): It measures the straight distance between nasion (n) and gnathion (gn) [Figure 7].


Indices

  1. Sagittal Naso Facial Index:

  2. Nasal Index:

  3. Elevation of Nose Index:




  Results Top


After the completion of our study, collected data of all the desired morphometric parameters mentioned in the material and method were subjected to appropriate statistical tests (mean, standard deviation, range-value) by using the SPSS software (IBM). Results are presented in the form of table [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5]. It is evident from [Table 1] that Nasal Index, parameters related to it and total facial height are statistically significantly different among male and female Jaunsari population. Sagittal Naso-facial Index and Elevation of Nose Index were found to be 44.93 ± 3.79, 44.22 ± 3.18 and 69.23 ± 17.13, 65.70 ± 8.73 in female and male Jaunsari population, respectively. It means Jaunsari population has in general, nose, which is relatively shorter in length and elevated. From [Table 2], it can be seen that predominant nasal breadth in male (69%) and in female (68%) are above medium type and medium type, respectively. From [Table 3], it can be seen that predominant nasal height in male (42%) and in female (50%) are above medium type and below medium type, respectively. From [Table 4], further it can be seen that equal percentage of male population are having leptorhinae (47%) and mesorrhine (47%) type of nose, whereas in female predominant type of nose is leptorhinae (60%) type.
Table 1: Comparison of facial parameters of male and female Jaunsari population

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Table 2: Nasal breadth range variation according to schaginhaufen[21]

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Table 3: Range-variation of nasal height according to Martin[21]

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Table 4: Range-variation of Nasal Index according to Martin and Saller[21]

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  Discussion Top


Different authors have studied nasal index in different races and in various locations. Nasal index of Indo-Aryans and Indian Negroids was studied by Risley.[22] Nasal indexes of Lebanon (63.30), Alawite (62.74), Damascus (63.26), Armenians (63.80), Greeks (68.49), and Arabic (74.48) were reported by Daniel.[23] Different studies by different group of authors on different ethnic groups of Nigeria have reported significant sexual dimorphism and platyrrhine type of nose in them.[24],[25] Some authors reported nasal index of south Indian population predominantly to be mesorrhine type based on their study of south Indian skull.[26] A comparative analysis can be seen in [Table 5]. In the present study, we found that nasal index, nasal breadth, nasal height, and total facial height are statistically significantly different among male and female Jaunsari population [Table 1]. It can also be seen that predominant nasal height in male (42%) and in female (50%) are above medium type and below medium type respectively [Table 3]. Although we have not focused on the factors which might be responsible for this morphometric presentation, it seems to be because of their specific geographical location and climatic condition which warrants a further study. The present study has provided values of different important morphometric parameters related to the nose (nasal breadth, total facial height, nasal height, nasal depth, nasal length, Sagittal Naso-facial Index, nasal index, Elevation of Nose Index) and predominant types of nose based on these parametric values [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]. These will be of great help in dealing with different forensic conditions, clinical diagnosis, planning of orthodontics, plastic, and reconstructive surgeries on the Jaunsari population.
Table 5: Comparison of the present study with other studies on the basis of Nasal Index

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Limitations of the study

  1. As it represents a local geographic population, it cannot be generalized
  2. It has not focused on the factors which might be responsible for this type of presentation of nasal parameters
  3. There is no comparison between Jaunsari tribe and rest of the population of state of Uttarakhand.


Future recommendation

For future studies, it is recommended that study should be designed taking into account of people of both Kumaon and Garhwal region of state of Uttarakhand, and hence that comparison and generalization can be made.


  Conclusion Top


Hence, we concluded that

  1. Nasal index, nasal breadth, nasal height, and total facial height are statistically significantly different among male and female Jaunsari population
  2. In general nose of the Jaunsari population, is relatively shorter in length and elevated
  3. Equal percentage of male population are having leptorhinae (47%) and mesorrhine (47%) type of nose, whereas in female predominant type of the nose is leptorhinae (60%)
  4. Predominant nasal breadth in male (69%) and in female (68%) are above medium type and medium type, respectively, and
  5. Predominant nasal height in male (42%) and in female (50%) is above medium type and below medium type, respectively.


Declaration of patient consent

The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form the patient(s) has/have given his/her/their consent for his/her/their images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.

Acknowledgment

We are grateful to Dr. Vartika Saxena, Professor, Dr. Ranjeeta Kumari, Additional Professor Department of Family Medicine and Dr. Nilotpal Choudhary, Additional Professor, Department of Pathology, AIIMS, Rishikesh for their valuable contribution to this project.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
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    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]



 

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