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Table of Contents
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 68  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 285-289

Body-height predictions with lower extremity length in the mentawai ethnic group


Department of Forensic Medicine of Andalas University, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Andalas, Padang, Indonesia

Date of Submission06-Nov-2019
Date of Acceptance06-Nov-2019
Date of Web Publication28-Feb-2020

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Rika Susanti
Faculty of Medicine, University of Andalas, Jalan Perintis Kemerdekaan No. 94, P.O. Box 49-25127, Padang
Indonesia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/JASI.JASI_212_19

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  Abstract 


Introduction: This study was aimed to determine the correlation between body-height with lower extremity length and to predict the formula for body-height prediction of the Mentawai ethnic group. Material and Methods: The research was conducted at several places on Sipora Island with a sample size of 201 persons and analyzed through a Spearman correlation test as well as simple and multiple linear regression analyses. Results: The simple linear equation for male upper leg was Y = 130.291 + 0.674 upper leg length (±7.496), female Y = 129.484 + 0.489 upper leg length (±4.522) and for male Lower leg was Y = 130.488 + 0.934 lower leg length (±4.520), female Y = 129.423 + 0.681 lower leg length (±3.590). The multiple linear regression equation for males was Y = 114.193 + 0.437 upper leg + 0.81 lower leg (±6.615) and for females was Y = 117.150 + 0.357 upper leg + 0.572 lower leg (±4.773). Discussion and Conclusion: The Mentawai ethnic adult aged male body height, upper leg length, and lower leg length were greater than in females. As well, there was a significant correlation between body height with upper leg length and lower leg length.The obtained regression equotions can be used in the future to predict Mentawai ethnic adult-aged male and female body-heigth.

Keywords: Body height, lower leg length, mentawai ethnic group, regression analysis, upper leg length


How to cite this article:
Susanti R, Hidayat T, Manela C. Body-height predictions with lower extremity length in the mentawai ethnic group. J Anat Soc India 2019;68:285-9

How to cite this URL:
Susanti R, Hidayat T, Manela C. Body-height predictions with lower extremity length in the mentawai ethnic group. J Anat Soc India [serial online] 2019 [cited 2020 Apr 2];68:285-9. Available from: http://www.jasi.org.in/text.asp?2019/68/4/285/279736




  Introduction Top


The Mentawai are grouped into the Mongoloid Proto-Malays.[1],[2],[3] Geographically, the Mentawai Islands lie on the western side of Sumatra Island and are a disaster-prone region, specifically for tectonic earthquakes, tsunamis, coast abrasions, and landslides.[4] Unrecognized dead bodies often require identification from mass disasters, war, homicide, suicide, or accidents, and this is a very important component of the forensic examination. During a disaster victim identification operation, the anthropologic examination method is a secondary identification method used to recognize victims.[5],[6],[7],[8],[9],[10]

One of the sources of data that must be utilized to identify an unrecognized victim's body is predictive bodyheight. Bodyheight prediction, specifically for a population of a certain region, is important when taking into account demographic differences.[8],[11],[12],[13],[14] This research's purpose was to establish a correlation between body-height with upper and lower leg lengths and to obtain a formula for adult-aged male and female body-height using upper and lower leg measurements with the Mentawai ethnic group.


  Material and Methods Top


This research featured an analytical cross-section design. Sample acquisition was conducted in several villages on Sipora Island, Mentawai, in October 2016. The research subjects were adult male and female volunteers who agreed to be examined and fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The sample was obtained through a consecutive sampling technique.

The inclusion criteria were respondents who were at least 20 years of age, Mentawai ethnicity, grew up on the Mentawai Islands, physically and mentally healthy, and willing to participate. The exclusion criteria were individuals with disease and genetic deformities of the bone. A sample size of 205 was reached, but in terms of the criteria, 201 persons were evaluated. The independent variables here were Mentawai ethnicity, gender, and age, and the dependent variables were body-height, upper leg length, and lower leg length.

Upper leg length is the length of the thigh, which is the distance from trochanterion to tibiale laterale [Figure 1]a. Lower leg length is the length of the tibia that is the length from the tibiale mediale to sphyrion [Figure 1]b. The participants' body-height, upper leg length, and lower leg length were measured according to an anthropometry method employing an anthropometry caliper tool [Figure 2]a and [Figure 2]b. The data yielded were then analyzed with a Spearman correlation test. The conducted linear and multiple regression analysis determined the formula for body-height prediction from upper and lower leg length. Informed consent was granted by all participants. This research was approved by the Ethics Commission at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Andalas, Padang.
Figure 1: (a) Measurement of upper leg length and (b) measurement of lower leg length

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Figure 2: (a) Measurement of lower leg length (b) measurement of upper leg length

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  Results Top


Characteristics of the research subjects

This research was conducted with 201 subjects consisting of 73 males and 128 females. The general characteristics of the participants are presented in [Table 1].
Table 1: Characteristics of research subject

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Body-height, upper leg length, and lower leg length of the research subjects

The measurements that were taken from the participants pertaining to body-height are listed in [Table 2].
Table 2: Research subjects' body height

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The upper leg measurements of the participants are shown in [Table 3].
Table 3: Research subjects' upper leg length

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The lower leg length measurements from the participants are listed in [Table 4].
Table 4: Research subjects' lower leg length

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Correlation analysis of research subjects' body-height with upper and lower leg length

To correlate the data, a data normality test was conducted and an abnormal distribution was obtained. The chosen correlation analysis was a Spearman nonparametric correlation.

From the Spearman correlation analysis, the participants' body-height with upper leg length was correlated and the results are presented in [Table 5].
Table 5: Correlation of research subjects body-height with upper leg length

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From the Spearman correlation analysis that was performed on the participants' body-height with lower leg length, the data yielded are listed in [Table 6].
Table 6: Correlation of research subjects' body-height with lower leg length

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Simple linear regression analysis between research subjects' body-height with upper and lower leg length

All gathered data were then used for a simple linear regression analysis between male and female participants' body-height with upper and lower leg length. The formula used was:

Y = a + bx + SE

where Y was the dependent variable, in this case, body-height, a was a constant, b was the regression coefficient; x was the independent variable, specifically upper and lower leg length in cm, and SE was a standard error. From the analysis, the formulae of the simple linear regression equation to predict body-height based on the upper leg length were as follows:

  1. For male individuals, the equation was:


  2. Y = 130.291 + 0.674 upper leg length (±7.496)

  3. For female individuals, the equation was:

    Y = 129.484 + 0.489 upper leg length (±4.522).


From the analysis, the formulae of the simple linear regression equation to predict body-height based on lower leg length were as follows:

  1. For male individuals, the equation was:


  2. Y = 130.488 + 0.934 lower leg length (±4.520)

  3. For female individuals, the equation was:

    Y = 129.423 + 0.681 lower leg length (±3.590).


Multiple linear regression analysis of body-height with upper and lower leg length

Multiple linear regression analysis yielded the following results for upper and lower leg length of Mentawai male and female body-height:

  1. For male individuals, the equation was:


  2. Y = 114.193 + 0.437 upper leg length + 0.81 lower leg length (±6.615)

  3. For female individuals, the equation was:

    Y = 117.150 + 0.357 upper leg length + 0.572 lower leg length (±4.773).



  Discussion Top


The race is an important factor in determining the correlation between a person's bone length with their body-height. Experts agree that there are three main racial groups in the world – Mongoloids, Caucasoids, and Negroids. Mongoloid races are from Middle Asia and East Asia, including archipelagos in Southeast Asia and America. Mongoloids are marked by several features, such as having short-to-small-tall figures, long and broad bodies, wide shoulders, and tight hips. They have short limbs, especially in the distal sections, small hands and feet with warped nails.[15],[16]

The first human group that came to the Indonesian archipelago was known as the Proto-Malaya race. The Mentawai tribe is Proto-Malayans that originated from Yunan in approximately 2000 B.C. and arrived in Indonesia through Indochina by way of the Malaya Peninsula to Sumatra.[2] According to Marsden, the people in Nassau, Poggies, or Pagai Island are the same as those on the northern side of the island, such as the Sipora and Siberut Islands, being the Mentawai people. Mentawai body-height is seldom >5.5 feet. Their skin color is similar to the Malay, being fair brown or copper. It is believed the Mentawai ancestors originated from Siberut Island.[17]

It has been found that there is quite a significant difference between body-height and its correlation to the long bone length based on gender.[11],[12],[13],[14],[15],[16],[17],[18] In the current work, the statistical analysis showed that Mentawai ethnic male's average body-height was higher than Mentawai females, on average of 11 cm more. This is in agreement with Indriati, Abrahamyan et al., Rahmawati et al., and Choi.[19],[20],[21],[22]

A similar result was obtained from the comparison of upper and lower leg length between male and female participants. Here, Mentawai ethnic male participants' average upper leg length was 3 cm longer than female participants. Further, males had an average lower leg length that was 2 cm longer than females'. These differences are in line with the previous work of Abrahamyan et al.[21]

The Spearman correlation analysis demonstrated that the correlation coefficient for Mentawai male body-height with upper leg length was 0.405 while for female body-height and lower leg length was 0.407. The overall correlation coefficient between the body-height with upper leg length was 0.339. The Spearman correlation values of 0.405 and 0.407 indicate that the correlation was positive with a moderate correlation power, while the Spearman correlation value of 0.339 suggested that the correlation was positive with weak correlation power. Note that these values are different from the earlier work of Oliver, Choi et al., and Abrahamyan et al.[21],[22],[23]

The correlation analysis result of Mentawai male body-height with lower leg length produced a correlation coefficient value of 0.676, while for female body height with lower leg length, it was 0.509. The overall correlation coefficient between body-height with lower leg length was 0.400. The Spearman correlation value of 0.676 shows that the correlation was positive with strong correlation power and the Spearman correlation value of 0.400 indicated that the correlation was positive with moderate correlation power. A significance value (P) of 0.000 means that the correlation between body-height with upper and lower leg length was statistically significant. Those correlation coefficient differences most likely arose because of the participants and measurement methods used. Here, body-height, upper leg length, and lower leg length measurements were obtained with an anthropometry method employing an anthropometry caliper with agreed upon anatomical points.

Age was certainly a factor in this research. Here, the youngest participant was 20 years old and the oldest was 90 years old. The use of a broad age range also perhaps influenced the correlation coefficient. This is likely based on the increase of the role of factors other than upper and lower leg length that would influence body-height, such as, for example, the growth of vertebrae. Columna vertebralis still grow until 30 years of age and provides additional body-height growth of approximately 3–4 mm. In terms of research, this can cause bias because each group did not have the same characteristics.[24],[25],[26]

In this work, the researchers measured the percutaneous upper and lower leg length, which still has skin, muscles, and joints, so there could have been a roughly 2.5–4 cm difference with the formulae for body-height prediction from long bones in previous studies.

Based on the significant correlation between upper leg length and lower leg length with body height in an adult-aged group, regression analysis was conducted to obtain the equations for body-height prediction for Mentawai ethnic adult males and females. The simple and multiple linear regression equations here varied compared to those arrived at through earlier efforts as per the literature. These differences were thought to have occurred because of the differences in research subject characteristics, such as age, race, or gender. Moreover, the differences in the measurement method also impacted the obtained regression equations.

Overall, the importance of body-height determination is in circumstances where the remains of an individual are mutilated or just bones.


  Conclusion Top


The Mentawai ethnic adult-aged male body-height, upper leg length, and lower leg length were greater than in females. As well, there was a significant correlation between body-height with upper leg length and lower leg length. The obtained regression equations can be used in the future to predict Mentawai ethnic adult-aged male and female body-height.

Acknowledgment

Researchers would like to thank to Indonesian Medical Association (IDI) of Mentawai Islands regency, Public Health Center (Pustu) Goiso'oinan's staff, and all those who have helped this research.

Declaration of patient consent

The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form, the patients have given their consent for their images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.

Financial support and sponsorship

PNBP fund of Faculty of Medicine of Universitas Andalas Padang.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

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    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6]



 

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