|Year : 2019 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 163-173
Students' perception on anatomy education in Cyberjaya University College of Medical Sciences, Malaysia
Atikah Abdul Latiff1, Saheera Kamarzaman1, Norhafizah Ab Manan2, Krishna Gopal Rampal3, Bala Krishnian Muniandy4
1 Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Cyberjaya University College of Medical Sciences, Cyberjaya, Selangor, Malaysia
2 Department of Statistics, Faculty of Medicine, Cyberjaya University College of Medical Sciences, Cyberjaya, Selangor, Malaysia
3 Centre for Graduate Studies, Cyberjaya University College of Medical Sciences, Cyberjaya, Selangor, Malaysia
4 Department of Emergency, Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
|Date of Submission||28-Apr-2019|
|Date of Acceptance||20-Sep-2019|
|Date of Web Publication||15-Oct-2019|
Dr. Atikah Abdul Latiff
Cyberjaya University College of Medical Sciences, Persiaran Bestari, Cyber 11, Cyberjaya - - 63000, Selangor
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Introduction: Anatomy education faces continuous debate about the best teaching methods to maximize learning as sufficient knowledge of anatomy is crucial for safe and efficient clinical practice. This study was conducted to explore students' perceptions about learning anatomy by focusing around six major topics: (i) the importance of anatomy in medical school, (ii) factors influencing students' performance in anatomy, (iii) anatomy teaching methods, (iv) continuous assessment in anatomy, (v) the clarity of learning outcomes, and (vi) students' suggestions to improve anatomy learning. Material and Methods: A total 183 medical students from year 1 to year 5 currently studying in Cyberjaya University College of Medical Sciences participated in the survey. This study involved collecting data through the Anatomy Education Questionnaire via online survey link. Results: There is a general awareness among all students regarding the importance and relevance of anatomy, i.e., to be a safe and competent doctor (80.7%) and to be able to perform invasive procedures and surgeries on patients (79.1%). Majority of students feel that inadequate assessments (59%), integrated curriculum (53%), and inappropriate teaching methods (31%) are the major factors that influence students' performance in anatomy. Teaching anatomy via cadaveric dissection (72.2%) is the most preferred study tool whereas traditional lectures (29.9%) are the least preferred methods among the students. Majority of students (97.3%) agree that having more continuous assessments helps them identify their weaknesses in anatomy. Discussion and Conclusions: This study suggests the necessity for some educational refinements to improve anatomy learning by fostering deeper approaches via clinical integration of the subject and utilization of anatomy videos.
Keywords: Anatomy assessments, anatomy education, performance in anatomy, students' perceptions, teaching methods
|How to cite this article:|
Latiff AA, Kamarzaman S, Manan NA, Rampal KG, Muniandy BK. Students' perception on anatomy education in Cyberjaya University College of Medical Sciences, Malaysia. J Anat Soc India 2019;68:163-73
|How to cite this URL:|
Latiff AA, Kamarzaman S, Manan NA, Rampal KG, Muniandy BK. Students' perception on anatomy education in Cyberjaya University College of Medical Sciences, Malaysia. J Anat Soc India [serial online] 2019 [cited 2020 Jul 13];68:163-73. Available from: http://www.jasi.org.in/text.asp?2019/68/2/163/269043
| Introduction|| |
Anatomy education has always been a vital part of the teaching of medicine. A strong knowledge of anatomy is important for practicing as a junior doctor, forming a foundation of diagnostic, procedural, and clinical practice. Anatomy is recognized as an essential component of medical curricula. However, medical students often feel inadequately prepared in anatomy, ranking it as the discipline where they felt least prepared for postgraduate training.. At the same time, many clinicians and anatomists worldwide have expressed worry over a perceived deficit in the anatomy knowledge of recent medical graduates.
Eight factors were claimed to have undesirable impact on anatomical knowledge of medical students. These include (i) teaching by nonmedically qualified teachers, (ii) absence of a core anatomy curriculum, (iii) decreased use of dissection as a teaching tool, (iv) lack of teaching anatomy in context, (v) integrated curricula, (vi) inadequate assessment of anatomical knowledge, (vii) decreased anatomy teaching hours, and (viii) neglect of vertical integration of anatomy teaching.
Worldwide, trends in medical education have influenced Malaysian medical education by the introduction of an integrated curriculum, implementation of problem-based learning (PBL), and early clinical exposure, among others. These reforms have changed basic medical sciences education including anatomy.
Currently, there are many driving forces behind curricular reforms. These include decreasing weekly contact hours, increasing subject matter integration, increasing clinical faculty interaction in the early years of medical school, and making use of the vast array of electronic and technological advances. Instead of traditional discipline-based courses, the movement is toward interdisciplinary science courses and integrated basic science/clinical courses. The current trends suggest using interactive approaches such as team-based learning, small group interactive sessions, and problem-based and case-based learning instead of only lecture-based presentation styles. These changes have greatly affected the teaching of anatomy globally.
As anatomy is the language of medicine and the majority of students who register in undergraduate anatomy courses plan on continuing their study in a health science-related field, it is important to recognize the learning styles of students in such a class in an effort to improve the learning and retention during undergraduate education to best prepare these students for their upcoming professions.
To date, no single teaching tool has been found to achieve all curriculum requirements. The teaching of human anatomy, like that of any course, requires constant revision and analysis to determine the teaching tools and approaches that best suit the learning process. This may require taking the students' perceptions regarding their ideas toward anatomy teaching and learning. Often, student ideas are collected and described after the course has finished. This study addresses the need for describing the ideas that the students have about anatomy education around six major areas: (i) the importance of anatomy in medical school and the relevance of anatomical knowledge in clinical practice, (ii) factors influencing students' performance in anatomy, (iii) anatomy teaching methods, (iv) continuous assessment in anatomy course, (v) the clarity of learning outcomes, and (vi) students' suggestions to improve anatomy learning.
The findings of this study are intended to provide guidance for medical educators, particularly anatomists, to move anatomy education beyond the goal of only acquiring factual information, toward student-centered instructional environments.
| Material and Methods|| |
This study aims to obtain information about the link between learning techniques that influence the study and academic performance of students in anatomy. An explanatory research was thought to be appropriate for this study. In an explanatory research, the researchers begin with ideas about the possible causes that affect academic performance in anatomy. A set of questionnaires were then developed to provide systematic evidence supporting or not supporting these initial ideas about the cause.
Sample and sample size
A survey was conducted among years 1–5 medical students of the Faculty of Medicine at Cyberjaya University College of Medical Sciences (CUCMS). A total of 183 students completed the survey.
Study tool – questionnaire
The questionnaire was developed in accordance with the AMEE Guide to developing questionnaires for educational research. Focusing on key themes from the literature, the findings were synthesized into a draft questionnaire and subjected to validation by six experts in medical education research or anatomy teaching. The draft questionnaire was pilot tested by a random group of ten medical students for validity, assessment of item range and variance, as well as content and clarity of wording, before the release of the final version of the survey.
This study involved collecting data through questionnaires via online survey link.
The demographic data of participants were collected including age, gender, and year of the study.
The Anatomy Education Questionnaire (AEQ) is a questionnaire with 14 items that assess three domains: students' perception of anatomy syllabus, students' perception of anatomy teaching and learning (teaching methods), and students' perception of anatomy assessments. The questions consist of polar questions, multiple-answer questions, open-ended questions, and a five-point Likert scale from 1 to 5 where 1: Poor, 2: Fair, 3: Average, 4: Good, 5: Excellent.
Consent from the students was obtained before the distribution of the questionnaire.
A sample of the questionnaire is provided in Appendix 1 [Additional file 1].
Reliability was determined by its internal consistency by looking at Cronbach's alpha values.
All questions in the questionnaire were developed by looking at the specific areas designed to best fit the Malaysian situation. The reliability and the validity of the tools were established through individual evaluation by experts from the field of anatomy, medical education, and statistics. All questions were validated, and the interrater reliability was >80%.
Data gathering process
The survey was conducted anonymously by sending out the online survey link via E-mail to all MBBS students. The students were given 1 week to fill the online survey. The data were collected via Google Forms and transferred into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and SPSS Statistics is a software package used for interactive, or batched, statistical analysis.
All responses were collected and analyzed using Microsoft Excel Office 365 and IBM SPSS Statistics 20. The means ± standard deviation were calculated. Descriptive statistics were presented as frequency and percentages.
This study has obtained ethical approval from the Research Ethics Committee, CUCMS, Malaysia (CUCMS/CRERC/ER/068).
| Results|| |
The reliabilities (internal consistencies) of the AEQ questionnaire were determined by looking at Cronbach's alpha values. Cronbach's alpha value for the Likert scale questions was very good, 0.916 with a Confidence Interval (CI) of 95%. As for the binary questions, Cronbach's alpha value was low, 0.426 (CI 95%).
The present study enrolled 187 medical students, of whom 54 (28.9%) were in their 5th year, 48 (25.6%) in their 4th year, 23 (12.3%) in their 3rd year, 30 (16%) in their 2nd year, and 32 (17.1%) in their 1st year. The students' mean age was 22.5 ± 1.4 years (range between 19 and 29 years); 45 (24.1%) were male and 142 (75.9%) were female. Additional and more detailed statistics of the demographic background of the respondents are provided in [Table 1].
At CUCMS, anatomy is taught extensively in the basic medical sciences phase (years 1 and 2). The 1st year of the 5-year MBBS program includes 90 h of anatomy lectures and 28 h of laboratory practical sessions, while in the 2nd year, the students received 84 h of anatomy lectures and 32 h of laboratory practical sessions. The laboratory practical sessions include both gross anatomy and histology. The breakdown details of anatomy learning hours are presented in [Table 2].
|Table 2: Teaching hours for anatomy lectures and laboratory practical sessions in basic medical sciences phase|
Click here to view
We evaluated the students' perceptions of the anatomy education they received previously. In our study, students' perceptions appeared to center around six major topics: (i) the importance of anatomy in medical school and the relevance of anatomical knowledge in clinical practice, (ii) factors influencing students' performance in anatomy, (iii) anatomy teaching methods, (iv) continuous assessment and quality of assessments in anatomy, (v) clarity of learning objectives in anatomy topics and relevance of teaching contents, and (vi) students' suggestions to improve anatomy learning. For some of the topics, the results are presented with illustrative quotes.
The importance to study anatomy in medical school and the relevance of anatomical knowledge in clinical practice
There is a general awareness among students in the clinical phase (years 3, 4, and 5) as well as in the basic medical sciences phase (years 1 and 2) regarding the importance and relevance of anatomy to numerous aspects of their future professional practice.
The prime factors to study anatomy among students include the following responses:
Q: “Why do you feel that learning anatomy is important in medical school?” Students may choose more than one answer.
- To be a safe and competent doctor (80.7%)
- To be able to perform invasive procedures and surgeries on patients (79.1%)
- To complete medical examination (77%)
- To make a diagnosis (67.9%)
- To help understand other medical subjects (67.9%)
- To be able to undergo further specialty training (52.9%).
Q: “Are the Anatomy topics taught sufficient for clinical years?”
Majority of the students in clinical years (77%) agree that anatomy knowledge learned during preclinical years is sufficient for them to integrate with the knowledge obtained during clinical years.
Q: “Is the current syllabus adequate to integrate anatomy with other preclinical subjects?”
Eighty-five percent of the students feel that the current anatomy syllabus is adequate for them to integrate with other preclinical subjects such as physiology, pathology, pharmacology, microbiology, biochemistry, as well as in PBL.
Factors influencing students' performance in anatomy
Most prevalent factors affecting students' performance in anatomy among the respondents include inadequate assessment, neglection of vertical integration of anatomy teaching, integrated curriculum (e.g. PBL or system-based curricula), inappropriate teaching methods, and lack of teaching anatomy in context [Figure 1]. Majority of the students in the clinical years feel that inadequate assessments (59%) and integrated curriculum (53%) are the two major factors that can influence students' performance in anatomy. Meanwhile, majority of students in the preclinical phase feel that inappropriate teaching methods (31%) play a significant role in influencing performance of students in anatomy.
|Figure 1: Factors influencing students' performance in anatomy between students in clinical phase and preclinical phase|
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Students' perceptions on anatomy teaching methods
With regard to students' perceptions on anatomy teaching methods, majority of the students (98.9%) strongly agree that the quality of teaching methods may affect students' performance in anatomy, whereas 96.3% feel that different teaching methods can affect students' performance in anatomy. At CUCMS, the anatomy lectures are conducted via interactive lectures and student-centered team-based learning Student- Centred Teaching Learning (SCTL) styles.
[Table 3] shows the most preferred and the least preferred anatomy teaching methods among the respondents. In this study, majority of the students ranked teaching anatomy via cadaveric dissection (72.2%) as the best study tool followed by practical session using plastinated specimens (63.6%). Self-directed learning, body painting, and lectures are the least favored anatomy teaching methods among the students with 8%, 16%, and 29.9% of respondents, respectively.
Students' perceptions toward continuous assessment and quality of assessments in anatomy
As for perceptions on assessments of anatomical knowledge, majority of the students (97.3%) agree that having more continuous assessments such as practice questions, quizzes, and weekly tests helps them identify their weaknesses in anatomy subjects. Furthermore, 96.3% of the students strongly feel that anatomy practical handbooks are helpful in revising for practical examinations such as objective structured practical examination (OSPE) and visual interpretative question.
[Table 4] shows the students' perceptions on the quality of assessments in anatomy. This includes single best answer question, short-answer question, and ospe. Majority of the preclinical and clinical students agree that the quality of the examination questions is good and excellent.
Clarity of learning objectives in anatomy topics and relevance of teaching contents
[Table 5] shows the students' perceptions on the clarity of learning objectives in anatomy topics and relevance of the teaching contents in anatomy. Both areas are rated as being good and excellent by majority of the preclinical and clinical students.
|Table 5: Students' perceptions on the clarity of learning objectives of anatomy topics and relevance of anatomy contents|
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Students' suggestions to improve anatomy learning
Students' suggestions in improving anatomy teaching–learning have been classified according to three major themes: (i) teaching methods, (ii) curriculum, and (iii) continuous assessment.
With regard to teaching methods, majority of the students suggested to include anatomy videos as part of the study tools. The following responses are extracted from the students:
“To provide videos on the plastinated models before any practical sessions.”
“To provide practical videos for each anatomy topic.”
“Due to advance in IT and internet, interactive style of learning would help student become more interested in learning Anatomy.”
On top of that, the students preferred more allocation of learning hours for practical sessions rather than more traditional anatomy lectures as it helps understand better rather than just memorizing facts.
“More on practical sessions than just lectures.”
“As seen in the practical sessions, it is easier to see what is being taught if there is something to see rather than just imagining it in our heads.”
“Longer hours for practical sessions guided by the lecturers.”
“Allocate more time for practical learning session and usage of cadaver instead of plastic specimen.”
As for their suggestions on curriculum, majority of the students responded to have more clinical integration in the lectures as it helps in-depth understanding and increase memory retention.
“Stress more on clinical correlation.”
“By correlating it with clinical scenarios. Give examples of an event or situation on when every anatomy knowledge is to be applied. Every single muscles and nerves and vessels.”
Majority of the students responded to include more continuous assessments, i.e., quizzes before and after class, for each anatomy topic, as this helps in learning anatomy more seriously, identifies area of weakness, and helps in answering the final examination.
“Give a pre and post class assessments.”
“Have a quick assessment on topics for students.”
“Make short quiz before start of the lecture.”
| Discussion|| |
The focus of this discussion is to highlight the students' perceptions about anatomy education, specifically in CUCMS, Malaysia. There are several major themes that will be discussed, mainly on the anatomy curriculum and anatomy teaching–learning.
Anatomy teaching hours
There has been a massive change in anatomy teaching hours in medical courses in places like Australia, New Zealand, United States, United Kingdom, and Ireland, sometimes by as much as 80%. Based on the Council on Medical Education of the American Medical Association report in 2009, the teaching of anatomy was reduced to an average of 149 h in gross anatomy, 73 h in microanatomy, and 79 h in neuroscience/neuroanatomy. Comparatively, our anatomy teaching hours amount to an average of 150 h in gross anatomy, 24 h in microanatomy, and 32 h in neuroanatomy. The worldwide reduction in anatomy teaching hours was thought to be largely due to the fast expansion of medical information, causing a cramp in time allocation for all basic science subjects. It has also lead to newer student-centered learning approaches such as online learning which can cater for the loss of student–lecturer interaction time. Locally in Asia thus far, no study has been done to evaluate how much hours have been allocated to the teaching of anatomy in medical schools.
Importance of anatomy
Various studies have found that knowledge of gross human anatomy was considered essential for everyday activities of a doctor including symptom evaluation, physical examination, imaging interpretation, or therapeutic procedures. Our results showed that most of our students in the two cohorts (preclinical and clinical phases) appreciate the importance of studying anatomy as it is fundamental to become a safe and competent doctor as well as to be able to perform invasive procedures and surgeries on patients. This is consistent with the findings of another study done which stressed that anatomy is not only important for surgical trainees but also remains a necessity for all doctors to examine a patient's body and to make clinical judgments, even if only to know where to refer a patient. Another study added that anatomy has been made even more important during the last century due to the vast usage of sophisticated imaging techniques in the medical field. Anatomy is not only important to interpret these images but also important to recognize the pathways used to target treatment to specific sites.
Our study has demonstrated that senior medical students in the clinical phase appreciate more the importance of the basic science courses taught in the preclinical years and its relevance to clinical medicine, compared to junior students in the preclinical phase. This probably is due to the diversity of the clinical rotations, which reflects their perception toward the relevance of anatomy to different clinical specialties.
Many studies agreed that the teaching of anatomy is important for integrating basic sciences. At CUCMS, spiral curriculum is applied throughout the two cohorts of study by integrating the knowledge of basic medical sciences with clinical applications. Majority of our clinical students agreed that the anatomy syllabus adequately integrates with other preclinical subjects, especially via PBL. Another study also states that anatomy helps students to understand clinical sciences better and bridges the gap between basic and clinical sciences.
Factors that influence students' performance in anatomy
The findings of this study highlighted three major factors that may play a role in influencing students' performance in anatomy: (i) inadequate assessments, (ii) integrated curriculum, and (iii) inappropriate teaching methods. Majority of our students agreed that assessments can influence students' performance in anatomy because they need assessment as an incentive to make them study. Assessment-driving learning is a well-known phenomenon in education. There was also an argument voiced by a senior medical student who believed that stricter assessment might have motivated him/her to study harder, but would not necessarily help in retention of knowledge. Therefore, test-directed studying can be regarded as a sign of external motivation to perform better. The vast majority of our students in the two cohorts believe that teaching anatomy in an integrated manner can influence their performance in anatomy where the concept of basic science is learned in the context of clinical problems either via PBL or via case study. Studies have shown that the basic science knowledge learned in a clinical context is better comprehended and more easily applied by students as the knowledge is presented in a logical sequence from simple to complex. Furthermore, spiral curriculum can be motivating because it activates and reinforces prior knowledge and stimulates a more advanced level of application and integration of knowledge and consequently increases expertise and feelings of competence. The overwhelming details of anatomy knowledge can also be controlled via integrated curriculum where students can emphasize on “the must-know topics” rather than “to know everything” with poor correlation to clinical cases. Many of the preclinical students feel that inappropriate teaching methods can lead to poor performance in anatomy. The use of effective teaching methods can increase memory retention in anatomy as well as to recall and relate with clinical subjects, which in return helps improve performance of students in anatomy assessments.
In the present study, the most preferred anatomy teaching methods among the students include cadaveric dissection and practical session with plastinated specimens. A similar finding was reported in a study where majority of the interviewed anatomists favored dissection as the best teaching method of anatomy. A study also found that not only anatomists but also medical students strongly believed that dissection is the best teaching method for anatomy. This is also supported by other studies that have even suggested that time has come to reinstate dissection as the core method of teaching gross anatomy to ensure safe medical practice. The use of cadavers helps students in active and deeper learning as well as provides early exposure for clinical practice and death encounters. It is also claimed to help students to practice some clinical skills. A study by Böckers et al. suggests that it aids students to build professionalism within themselves, which includes working in a team, coping with stress and feeling empathy. Compared to the use of plastinated specimens, dissection exposes students to anatomical variations and more realistic texture and appearance of the body structures. These studies suggest that inappropriate teaching methods can also lead to poor performance in anatomy.
Although cadaveric dissection remains to be favored by many, a lot of studies have also argued on the suitability of cadaveric dissection in the modern medical curriculum. Studies have suggested that dissection is very expensive, time-consuming, and outdated. In most medical schools in the UK, US, and Australia, dissection is no longer used to teach anatomy despite the increasing number of donated bodies. Due to the movement toward integrated medical curriculum, there has been a reduction in time allocated for anatomy. This, together with the expensive cost of obtaining and maintaining cadavers, has led to the decreasing use of dissection in medical schools. The use of prosections also allows students to learn the same anatomical structures in a less amount of time compared to if they were to search for the structures during dissection.
While, in the past, traditional lecture used to be one of the most popular ways of teaching, in the present study, it is the least preferred method of learning anatomy. A study found that there is a great influence of technology in the approaches to teaching anatomy. Students nowadays prefer new technology-based approaches as compared to traditional lectures. Consequently, the study suggests the use of technology-based practices in anatomy education, as a complement to the lectures given. Apart from traditional lectures, we also conduct interactive lectures and student-centered teaching–learning (SCTL) in the teaching of anatomy in CUCMS. This is supported by a study which found that students today have grown up with interactive technology advantage and expect engaging activities in the class rather than didactic teaching. Another study also supports the use of SCTL as it is found that group assignments on theoretical exercises were essential to improve learning in anatomy. Another study suggests that although lectures have claimed to be ineffective, it has remained as an important anatomy teaching method. This is because anatomy is thought to be a cognitively difficult subject which requires input from teachers.
Our study also found that most students agreed that the learning outcomes of teaching–learning were clear and relevant. The clarity of learning outcome is an essential aspect to evaluate the teaching–learning of anatomy. This is supported by Whillier and Lystad, 2013, that highlights the importance of learning objectives in assessments especially. Assessment questions are made to test the students' understanding or knowledge on the learning outcomes. Although their performance in the assessment may not yet indicate the depth of their understanding, the learning objectives should be able to at least help guide them in their revision.
The findings of this study highlighted three important suggestions: (i) the use of anatomy practical videos, (ii) clinical integration of anatomy, and (iii) more assessments. Most studies found that multimodal approach is most favored by students as it aims to cater to the different learning styles of students. Students have different “learning styles,” which refers to the concept that individuals differ with regard to what mode of instruction or study is most effective for them. These learning styles include visual learners, auditory learners, and kinesthetic learners. It is suggested that an effective course adequately combines the two channels of communication which are visual and auditory. They have developed a multimodal approach to teaching anatomy that uses an integrated range of resources, including formal lectures and practical sessions (incorporating gross anatomy specimens, medical imaging technologies, anatomical models, clinical scenarios, and surface anatomy workstations). This is at par with our study that suggests the use of videos, practical guidebook, and having clinical integration of anatomy.
Other studies have also found that the use of media in anatomy has also been favored in the last decades. It was found that students in this era are less interested in listening to lectures or reading books. The use of media such as videos and anatomy images was thought to help students visualize and learn anatomical structures. They also suggest that this new “generation of princes and princesses of the internet, web, and portable computers” have different ways of thinking and learning compared to the past generation. Hence, it is most appropriate for us to use these technological advances to help them learn in a way that they are most comfortable with.
The suggestion to teach more clinically relevant anatomy is no doubt very important. As the main aim of the medical curriculum is to produce safe and competent doctors, it is a must that learning in all aspects should eventually lead to this. The Medical Defence Union in the UK has reported a significant increase in claims associated with lack of anatomy knowledge among doctors. Various reports were found to be related to damage to underlying structures. A suggestion made by Sbayeh et al. (2016) on how to make anatomy more clinically relevant is by taking into account the views of clinicians during the development of the anatomy module.
This study considers only the opinions of medical students from a particular university, i.e., CUCMS. Students' opinion may vary across different universities and can be very different from anatomists' who are responsible for setting the standards and the learning outcomes of anatomy education. Even between anatomists, opinions will differ, especially with regard to pure anatomists and clinical anatomists. Clinicians such as surgeons and medical specialists will also have different views of how anatomy should be taught and the depth of appropriate anatomy teaching.
| Conclusion|| |
The present study demonstrates the perception of students regarding the current anatomy teaching–learning in CUCMS medical school. Despite the students' awareness of the importance and relevance of anatomy, there is still a considerable loss of anatomy knowledge retention in majority of junior doctors across the globe. The findings of this study suggest that although the current CUCMS teaching facilities, lecturers, syllabus, teaching methods, and assessments are satisfactory at present, there is a necessity for some educational refinements to be made. The findings of this study also suggest a multimodal approach in teaching–learning of anatomy which includes more practical videos, more continuous assessments, and integration of anatomy with clinical conditions. The findings of this study should call for further research to develop effective anatomy teaching methods to further enhance the teaching–learning of anatomy.
This study is funded by CUCMS Research Grant Scheme (CRG/04/15/2017).
Financial support and sponsorship
This study is funded by CUCMS Research Grant Scheme (CRG/04/15/2017).
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]